Women & Education: A Cornerstone of Development
By SELF Staff, August 24, 2105
In the developing world, women are the foundation of community development. They are entrepreneurs, farmers, teachers, health providers, and homemakers. And yet, they are primarily uneducated; as young girls, they often leave primary schools in order to take care of the family by performing household chores and providing childcare for their siblings.
The second Millennium Development Goal seeks to give every child a “full course of primary schooling” by 2015 and, since 2000 great strides have been made in accomplishing that goal. The gap between high-income students and low-income students has shrunk and literacy rates have grown, but progress is still needed, especially for women and girls. According to the United Nations, in 2009, 35 million girls were not in school, and half of them were located in sub-Saharan Africa. In developing countries more males still complete primary education than females.
According to the World Bank, three main factors affect the opportunity to obtain an education: income, location and gender. Income is the most significant, as students from high-income backgrounds have more access to better schools and are expected to get at least some schooling, so a greater percentage of these students tend to complete a primary education. The income gap is especially acute in sub-Saharan African nations where there is a difference of 55 percentage points in primary education matriculation rates of students from high-income and low-income backgrounds.
Where children live also heavily impacts access to education. In urban areas, hospitals and good schools are more readily available than in rural areas and the quality of the schools are often better than those in rural areas.
Gender also plays a factor in obtaining an education and it is very important to look at when assessing the state of education around the world. The ICPD Programme of Action states “education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process”, yet women and girls are still likely to be more poor and illiterate than men.
A woman who has a primary education is better prepared to enter the workforce and make money of her own, which can be used for buying food, livestock, or for starting a small business, or even to pay for school for her children. Studies have also shown that educated women are also more likely to have fewer children, and go on to have them later in life. Basically, education can empower women to lead better, healthier lives and help their communities.
Energy can play a central role in educating women. For many teachers in rural regions of developing countries, blackboards and chalk are the only learning tools available to them. Access to energy, specifically electricity, helps to improve the quality of education by providing teachers with the ability to use a variety of new learning tools such as computers, projectors, microscopes, and perhaps most importantly, access to the internet. That would provide both teachers and students with a world of knowledge that was previously unimagined resources and tools for teaching and learning. Classrooms without books are able to use the internet for research that can enhance studies.
Access to the internet would broaden the perspectives of students in areas that have never before left the confines of their communities. Suddenly, children are able to view photos of the Arctic Circle and of animals in rainforests on other continents. They can watch videos detailing the importance of proper hygiene, and connect with other students their age in different communities in Africa or in different countries across the world. The internet is the link connecting students to the rest of the world, which positively affect their educations and their future prospects.
Electrifying classrooms also means schools can stay open after the sun goes down for night classes, seminars, or town meetings. Electrified schools go from an empty room that can only be used during the day, to centers for community empowerment that reinforce the importance of education.
Giving women this type of an opportunity gives younger girls in villages someone to look up to. Many girls in villages across the developing world do not hope to grow up to be anything other than a wife and a mother because they have not seen any other path. But, by seeing women from similar backgrounds or even their own village working, making their own money, and changing lives, girls may be inspired to go out and do something similar.
Education is a pillar of development. Without access to even a basic education, many living in developing countries, in particular women, may never escape the cycle of poverty and everything associated with it. Electrifying schools provides a positive ripple effect on many aspects of women’s lives, and solar power can play a primary role in creating the opportunities for them to lift themselves out of poverty.
> A Clean Glass of Water is Beyond the Reach of Hundreds of Millions of People
By Matthew Cullom
June 20, 2015
For the month of June, SELF is joining Global Giving to raise $17,000 to provide villagers in the Kalalé region of Benin with a solar-powered potable water system. The need is dire, especially for the children, many who die from waterborne diseases. Go to https://goto.gg/20808 to learn how you can help.
Californians, in the midst of severe drought, are being forced to cut back their water consumption. They take shorter showers and let their lawns and gardens wither. The situation is critical to be sure, but could be so much worse.
Imagine the reality faced by Kalalé residents in northern Benin during the region’s annual dry season. As shallow wells and riverbeds dry up in the Sudano-Sahel region, villagers, mostly women and children, must walk for miles in search of water. Many leave home in the middle of the night to trek to distant rivers and shallow pools that dry up as the sun rises. With cleaner sources unavailable, they must settle for this polluted water, often sharing it with wild animals that have made the same long trek. With no way to adequately treat the water, which is fraught with bacteria and parasites, villagers suffer from high rates of waterborne illnesses. For Kalalé residents, access to clean water is a human right in short supply.
Before SELF’s intervention, local girls were pulled out of school to help their mothers bring water from wells to their houses or gardens.
According to UNESCO, 45 percent of Benin’s population is exposed to unsafe water. (https://www.unesco-ihe.org/stories/towards-water-secure-benin) Overall, waterborne illnesses account for over 19 percent of all deaths each year. Malaria, bilharzia (a disease caused by parasitic worms), cholera, and other diarrheal diseases are constant threats. Children with under-developed immune systems are the most vulnerable, with over half of children’s health center visits attributed to malaria and diarrheal diseases. (http://www.ehproject.org/PDF/ehkm/pouzn-benin.pdf) Benin, which ranks 166 out of 186 in the Human Development Index, is desperately trying to reach the Millennium Development Goal of improved water sanitation. To do so, however, it must find a way to provide a quarter of its population access to clean water.
What is striking in Benin is that, unlike its northern neighbors, the country does have adequate under and aboveground water sources. (https://www.unesco-ihe.org/stories/towards-water-secure-benin)
However, many Beninese towns or villages lack the infrastructure necessary to safely and efficiently extract water. Like Kalalé residents, nearly half of the population (43%) cannot access developed water sources and relies instead on unsafe sources such as open, shallow wells or easily contaminated streambeds. (http://www.psi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Providing-Safe-Drinking-Water-in-Benin.pdf) Diesel pumps, a conventional tool used to extract water from safer, deep wells, are incredibly expensive and prone to fuel shortages and breakdowns.
SELF saw this as the perfect opportunity to fight water insecurity using solar energy. We installed ultra-reliable solar pumps to transport water from deep wells to sealed, above ground containers, eliminating the risk of contamination. With six closed water storage tanks, located in the center of five villages, residents now have easy, uninterrupted access to potable water.
On the left, local Children enjoy safe, clean water from SELF’s storage tank. On the right, Kalalé villagers celebrate the installation of SELF’s solar-powered water system.
Compared to diesel powered alternatives, solar pumps are cheaper and more durable as they eliminate the cost of diesel fuel and maintenance inspections. Diesel pumps need routine oil and filter changes and periodic part replacements, while solar panels only need weekly cleaning (a simple hosing down of panel surfaces to maximize PV output). Diesel pumps have an estimated life expectancy of around five years. Solar pumps can last twice as long. In conjunction with our local partner, ADESCA, we have trained Kalalé residents on how to repair solar systems. All six pumping stations continue to run smoothly and not one solar module has broken down since their installation in 2011.
In addition to providing clean drinking water, we combined solar pumping systems with high-tech drip irrigation systems that transport water from rivers and above ground reservoirs directly to the roots of the plant. This requires less water and labor than traditional irrigation techniques and boosts agricultural yields by almost 25 percent. With less water dedicated to irrigation, wells function longer into the dry season, enhancing water security for all villages in the region.
Many villages in Benin still have a great need for clean drinking water. Our goal is to install pumping systems to provide clean water to all of Kalalé’s villages and eliminate water insecurity throughout the region. You can help us by contributing to the solar water system we are building through our partnership with Global Giving. Visit https://goto.gg/20808.
Access to safe water is a basic human right and yet 783 million people do not have access to clean water and almost 2.5 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation. (Source: United Nations) Water resources are becoming increasingly strained. Experts project the demand for water to increase 55 percent by 2050. Most of this demand will be driven by developing nations like Benin. At SELF, we believe that investing in renewable energy solutions is the fastest, most reliable path to ensuring the right to safe water in Benin and the rest of the developing world.